Belongingness Online


As so many of us are moving (sometimes against our will) to teaching online, apprehension can cause us to lose sight of why this is all necessary. Hybrid learning expands access to so many who are otherwise excluded. Can learning online be even more welcoming than the traditional classroom?

Consider the reflections of Dr. George Station, a teacher at California State University Monterey Bay who noted on Twitter, “At the campus/class level and in professional learning networks, it’s mainly questions about creating or maintaining community from face-to-face to virtual alternatives, engaging faculty and students in the process, easing angst about remote work.”

In these tumultuous times, higher education experts want to know: how can we continue to build community when we are not in our physical offices for students to stop by? What does my instructional style look like when lectures are being recorded instead of delivered? How can I build trust when I can’t banter in the hallways or stick around after class to see how my students are getting along in their daily lives? Until access to face to face education becomes more equitable, practitioners need to become skilled at building community in online classrooms and fostering digital environments that enhance feelings of belongingness for our students.

What is belongingness? In online settings, belongingness (and its corollary, welcomeness) answers the question that students ask when they begin learning online: “Do I belong here?” Faculty who create welcoming spaces allow their learners to respond with an affirming, “YES!” Belongingness is essential for adults to advance along Bloom’s taxonomy.

In research regarding welcomeness, it has been defined as how comfortable an individual would feel while participating in an activity, or how a student in class would answer, “Are you welcomed here?” Faculty are responsible for how welcome students feel when they enter the virtual classroom in the same way we own our campus office space.

As faculty, we can enhance students feelings of belongingness through our social presence and active inclusion techniques in the classroom. Being socially excluded has been found to have numerous negative effects on health, happiness, and even longevity. Faculty have a powerful role to play in making sure that our learners feel they are at home online. Belongingness is at its foundation relationship development and maintenance. In a remote setting, it still resembles the characteristics of face-to-face best practices.

To ensure my students feel they are part of a community, I conduct active outreach through my classroom announcements, personal emails, and even text messaging to see how my students are doing. Yesterday, I interacted with students of mine who live in British Columbia, Qatar, and rural Georgia.

It is insufficient to be “approachable” in online classrooms, instructors need to be an intrusive positive presence in the life of the students you support. This is how belongingness works, as it meets the need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships. Belongingness is a fundamental human motivation: “People seek frequent, affectively positive interactions within the context of long-term, caring relationships” (Baumeister & Leary, 1993, p. 26). As faculty, our ability to develop and cultivate interpersonal connections enhances student persistence and retention.

From the Class Cafe where your introduction reveals the human side of yourself (include a picture) through the use of ice breakers (asking about favorite foods or recently made recipes is a great way to boost engagement in the Week 1 forum), to the grade book where you apply rubrics to student essays and discussion boards, be kind to your students in your feedback. Do not be afraid to be your full human self in class. Judicious use of humor (grammar jokes are good) can help.


We are humans “being” (in this case, being learners), which is a vulnerable place for all of us. Writing is a form of thinking, and none of us feels serene while our work is being critiqued by a professor. Writing is how online learning functions, and it is the basis of most exchanges. Try to enhance belongingness through student-centered thinking. Remind yourself that all students have been thrown curve balls in recent years, and then acknowledge the fact that online learning can be more reading and writing intensive, so some students making the shift from the traditional setting might feel utterly overwhelmed as they try to squeeze tons of academic reading and writing into their day.

To mitigate some of the cold and austere perceptions of virtual classrooms, please make sure to build in journals or other private spaces to allow for reflection, direct communication regarding learning differences, and other private conversations between you and the individual students you support. It is important to be aware of all elements that could negatively impact student timeliness in responses. In assessment, try to focus on the quality of student submissions as opposed to APA compliance or other style elements, and in your comments, make sure that learners know that you are reading their thoughts and considering their ideas that they’ve shared through their writing.

While online learning spaces need a lot of faculty upkeep and maintenance, and that level of engagement may feel a bit overwhelming at first, just know that all of your attention to the human elements pays off in the long run. Baumeister and Leary do not mince words: “the desire for interpersonal attachment may well be one of the most far-reaching and integrative constructs currently available to understand human nature” (p. 26). Human nature is ever present online, as we all can testify, so make sure that your classroom is an antidote to the chaos that surrounds it. Our online learners are counting on us.

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3 thoughts on “Belongingness Online

  1. I noticed something interesting today as my grandchildren embarked on full time virtual learning. While my10 year old grand daughter benefited from a structured virtual class, my grandson 12 years old, was allowed time in the online forum to help his class mates. The banter you spoke of abounded to the point I questioned him about his focus. Having taught at tertiary level I then realised how important self and peer to peer learning was, even in grade seven. Not just for gaining knowledge but for creating a comfortable and inclusive learning environment. For social connection and mental health.
    Keep up these great articles. Its a wonderful resource as we enter new territory – our ‘brave new world’ albeit not quite as Huxley depicted it I hope.


    1. Hello Robyn,
      I am so glad that your grandson is laughing while learning, and that type of engagement and social connection is such an important part of online academic experiences. If you laugh, you make your brain more receptive to new information. While we all need to become more adept with the technology, I also want people to embrace the social connection necessary to enhance positive mental health, especially in this brave new world (please, we will all need to play a part in ensuring it isn’t as Huxley depicted!) Thank you so so much for your note! You made my day!

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Great information! Thank you


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